The orange harvest is the process in which the fruit is separated from the tree and then transported to another location. This is carried out in the period when the orange has ripened to the point where it is suitable for the manufacture of a given product. The ripening of the fruit must be accompanied throughout the harvesting period in order to direct it to the market for fresh fruit (in natura) or to the processing industry for the production of concentrated or whole juices.
According to information published by the Companhia de Entrepostos e Armazéns Gerais de São Paulo (CEAGESP) the main orange varieties in Brazil are: Pera Rio, Natal, Valencia, Hamlin, Bahia, Westin, Ruby, Folha Murcha, Seleta and Lima. Among these varieties, the Pera Rio is the one most used for consumption "in natura" and for the production of juices, since it is sweeter and less acidic than the other varieties.
The transportation of the oranges from the farms to the processing plants requires a complex system of logistics. As soon as the fruits are harvested they are placed in bags. These are then hoisted by cranes and the fruit is emptied into loading trucks. When the loading trucks are full, they transport the oranges to the collection bins for the temporary storage of the fruit. Next, the oranges are loaded into larger trucks which transport them to the processing plants.